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By Stephen Leeder, Susan Raymond, Henry Greenberg, Hui Liu, Kathy Esson

ISBN-10: 0975433601

ISBN-13: 9780975433607

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Additional resources for A Race Against Time:the Challenge of Cardiovascular Disease in Developing Economies

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Source: Annual Health Statistics, 2002, Tatarstan Ministry of Health, July 2003; Kamil Sh. Zyatdinov, Minister for Health, Tatarstan Figure 6 indicates that on average between 1984 and 2002, age-specific CVD mortality rates for those between 35 and 64 in Tatarstan increased by about 50%. Among men aged 35 to 39, the rate increase was an amazing 71% in less than 20 years. S. Importantly, in Tatarstan, this trend in CVD mortality does not reflect a workforce that is getting sicker in general. Death rates for pulmonary disease, for example, among men between the ages of 35 and 49, have increased by just over 10%.

We related the deaths to UN population estimates. Reported deaths are incomplete for many countries. South African data are about 50% complete, and for Brazil they are about 80% complete. The proportion of deaths coded to ill-defined causes varies across countries from a few percent in the USA to 10% in Russia, 20% in Brazil and Portugal and 40% in South Africa. (Colin Mathers WHO: personal communication). In South Africa Dr. Debbie Bradshaw and colleagues have adjusted data for under-registration and misclassification.

The denominator at risk will continue to increase due to demographic factors. Rather, it holds numbers of deaths relatively steady, as indicated by the third and lowest line in Figure 15. CVD STATUS AND PROJECTIONS IN FIVE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 42 D The macroeconomic and economic consequences of CVD The previous sections hint at the potential economic costs of CVD and its risk factors. In this section, we explore the costs of CVD more closely. To develop an estimate of the macroeconomic consequences of CVD we have calculated the years of productive life lost due to deaths from CVD occurring among members of the workforce.

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