By Frank Ruda
Pushing again opposed to the modern delusion that freedom from oppression is freedom of selection, Frank Ruda resuscitates a basic lesson from the background of philosophical rationalism: a formal suggestion of freedom can come up merely from a security of absolute necessity, utter determinism, and predestination.
Abolishing Freedom demonstrates how the best philosophers of the rationalist culture or even their theological predecessors—Luther, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Freud—defended not just freedom but additionally predestination and divine providence. by way of systematically investigating this usually neglected and possible paradoxical truth, Ruda demonstrates how actual freedom conceptually presupposes the belief that the worst has continuously already occurred; briefly, fatalism. during this brisk and witty interrogation of freedom, Ruda argues that merely rationalist fatalism can treatment the modern disease whose paradoxical identify this present day is freedom.
Read Online or Download Abolishing Freedom: A Plea for a Contemporary Use of Fatalism (Provocations) PDF
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Extra info for Abolishing Freedom: A Plea for a Contemporary Use of Fatalism (Provocations)
Luther’s answer is that by trying to resist its own nature, the will is driven into even worse evil (recall Florville’s story) simply because sinful self-confidence and self-righteousness emerge from the assumption that one is able to behave virtuously. The only capacity mankind has is a capacity to do evil, and there is no way to resist it. We are incapable of freely redetermining ourselves (our nature), for in this act we would have to rely on the very capacity that we seek to redetermine: there is a compulsion to repeat evil.
This conclusion is derived from reading Scripture to the letter. . ” This is why, for Luther, Erasmus argues like a sophist. He is a “wordy rhetorician,” “a fluent orator,” bending God’s word, introducing allegedly subtle but ultimately worthless distinctions. ”23 In short, he is a postmodernist avant la lettre and in the pejorative sense of the term. Luther generally despises the idea that certain things should not be discussed publicly when it comes to matters of faith. ”24 But the true problem is that “you treat this subject as if it were simply an affair between 24 · Protestant Fatalism you and me about the recovery of a sum of money”; this sort of bookkeeping does not work in matters of faith and freedom.
Rejecting these misconceptions, he contends that not-all are condemned because God elects some of them through elections that from our perspective are necessarily contingent. Election is when the impossible happens as impossible. This implies that one must deny free will and learn not to will—not even to will nothing. The necessity to affirm God’s predestination implies also that one must learn through faith how to inexist. As this is how one prepares (without being able to) for being reborn—considering oneself as not yet being created, always already noncreated.