By Rakesh Bajpai, Aleš Prokop, Mark Zappi
Over the previous century, nearly all of chemical and effort wishes of our commercial society has originated from fossilized carbon resources (coal, crude oil, usual gas). more and more, there's a consciousness that usage of the fossilized carbon assets has antagonistic environmental outcomes within the kind of expanding focus of greenhouse gases. we're additionally changing into conscious of the restricted nature of those assets. consequently, substantial efforts are being made to provide chemical substances and fuels from renewable assets similar to woodland items, agricultural residues and plant items. All of those structures trap solar power and atmospheric carbon dioxide as part of the usual carbon cycle. critical study efforts also are underway, concentrating on cultivation of photosynthetic autotrophic microbes for the construction of biomass and lipids. during this class, algae appears to be like to provide the main power for taking pictures solar power and atmospheric carbon dioxide and supplying adequate amounts of biomass/lipids that could offset the fossilized carbon usage in a significant demeanour with no impacting nutrients output adversely. in spite of the fact that, a number of advances, either technologically in addition to politically, are wanted sooner than we will detect its complete power. it's also transparent biorefinery process has to be undertaken with the intention to harvest renewable strength and chemical substances from algae economically. This edited, multi-authored quantity on Algal Biorefineries will rfile new advances related to algae-based technology.
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Extra resources for Algal Biorefineries: Volume 1: Cultivation of Cells and Products
2012). Oswald and co-workers realized visionary designs integrating AD and algal biomass production as early as the 50’s (Oswald and Golueke 1960; Golueke et al. 1957; Golueke and Oswald 1959; Bailey Green et al. 1996). 2), light energy is used to convert organic waste streams (such as manure) into lipids, clean water and a residual biomass rich in protein and carbohydrates. The high oxygen content of the algal pond reduces the pathogen count of the waste stream (Mata-Alvarez et al. 2000), such that the residual biomass can be used directly as fertilizer (Mulbry et al.
3). Upon determination of the culture autotrophic and nitrogen yields under nutrient-replete conditions, the nitrogen flux is lowered gradually until lipid production is achieved—at the cost of a lowered overall dry-weight productivity. This chapter details the methodology to achieve continuous autotrophic lipid production. 1 Biomass and Lipid Production Estimates Algal lipids have been widely promulgated as a precursor to renewable transportation biofuels. Stress-induced autotrophic lipid accumulation has been documented in many algal species (Rodolfi et al.
Renewable Energy Lab. Golden Colorado USA Shelef G, Sukenik A, Green M (1984) Microalgae harvesting and processing: a literature review. Report SERI/STR-231-2396, UC Category 61A, DE84013036 Sing FA, Isdepsky A, Borowitzka MA, Moheimani NR (2013) Production of biofuels from microalgae. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 18:47–72 Sirin S, Trobazo R, Ibanez C, Salvado J (2012) Harvesting the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum with polyaluminum chloride, aluminium sulphate, chitosan and alkalinity-induced flocculation.