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Extra resources for Assessing the effects of ICT in education: indicators, criteria and benchmarks for international comparisons
Developing completely new indicators is a timeconsuming process, because empirical evidence needs to be collected regarding the comparability, statistical quality and interpretability of the new measures. After the data are collected, ‘indicator statistics’ can be calculated. For example, when an indicator definition might be ‘use of ICT’, one of the indicator statistics might be ‘percentage of students using ICT daily at school’. If the same intended indicator was included in earlier assessments, another indicator statistic might be ‘increase of daily use of ICT at school between 2000 and 2009’.
Another complication of using age-based samples is that the logistics of data collection are much more complex (resulting in a heavier burden on NRCs and schools, causing higher costs and risks of higher nonresponse). The population definitions also have implications for the definitions of teachers and school populations — that is, to which populations the results can be generalised. 17, PISA2003); • Sampling Once the population definitions for each country are settled, samples can be drawn. These samples need to be of high quality in order to warrant good estimates for the whole population.
The point is that this is often an indication of how schools use ICT as a tool for collaboration. • Reorganisation: An indication of impact on the institutional level also relates to Multilevel approach to address complexity the extent to which schools start to reorganise their practices due to the implementation of new technologies. For example, that the introduction of laptops makes it difficult to uphold a traditional classroom setting. Teacher education level • Teachers’ ICT competence: To what extent teacher education has implemented courses and strategies towards the increased competence of teachers in using ICT is an important part of educational development and change.