By M. L. Meeks
-pt. B. Radio telescopes
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Additional info for Astrophysics, radio telescopes
A molecule of a compound designated R–C2 H2 O–R (R and R denote two arbitrary groups of atoms) may exist in two distinct chemical states (isomers) as a ketone or an alcohol . A transition of the molecule from one chemical state to another through a transition state (the structure in brackets) corresponds to the transition of a molecule through the semipermeable partition as in (a). In this case, the total number of molecules corresponds to the global variable Y , while the number of molecules of a given isomer corresponds to the structural variable X.
19), we have dX = −1 , dX and hence a necessary condition for the minimum energy is ∂E ∂X ∂E ∂X = S . 24) S is called the thermodynamic force conjugate to X. 23) can be interpreted as equality of the forces: A =A . 25) This is the condition of dynamical equilibrium between the two subsystems. The thermodynamic state of a closed system, whose global thermodynamic variable X assumes a ﬁxed value, is the same as that of a system at mechanical equilibrium with an environment acting on it with the appropriate force A (Fig.
Much more common is a partly stable motion (stable for chosen degrees of freedom) or completely unstable motion (Berry, 1978). 5 Statistical Ensembles. Mixing and the Trend Toward Equilibrium The great methodological role of the principle of mechanical determinism rests with the distinction between general laws (the form of the equations of motion) and individual facts (the data characterizing a state of a speciﬁc system at a speciﬁc time). Although we have rather well recognized laws of physics, a suﬃciently accurate determination of the state of a given system poses practically insurmountable diﬃculties.