Download Atmospheric turbulence : models and methods for engineering by Hans A. Panofsky PDF

By Hans A. Panofsky

ISBN-10: 0471057142

ISBN-13: 9780471057147

Offers, in one quantity, an updated precis of the present wisdom of the statistical features of atmospheric turbulence and an creation to the equipment required to use those facts to useful engineering difficulties. Covers uncomplicated physics and data, statistical homes emphasizing their habit just about the floor, and purposes for engineers.

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Sample text

Great tits eat winter moth caterpillars, which in turn feed on the leaves of oak trees. To breed successfully, these birds must synchronise offsprings’ peak food demands with caterpillar peaks (figure 1). Winter moth caterpillars emerge in the spring after oak tree buds burst open. However, the caterpillars are available for only a short period because, once fully grown, they pupate in soil. If these caterpillars hatch too early, before oak buds are available, half may perish within five days. But hatching too late also creates problems for caterpillars.

Mixed messages and furtive exits: autumn departure In contrast to arrivals, climate-change effects on birds’ timing of departure from their breeding grounds are less well understood, and the trends more ambiguous. In Europe, responses may reflect the fact that autumn, unlike the other three seasons, is not warming. These mixed messages may also signal the differences in species’ annual cycles or ecology. The relative importance of a given bird’s breeding and non-breeding season, for example, may determine whether earlier spring arrival translates into earlier or later autumn departure.

Great tits eat winter moth caterpillars, which in turn feed on the leaves of oak trees. To breed successfully, these birds must synchronise offsprings’ peak food demands with caterpillar peaks (figure 1). Winter moth caterpillars emerge in the spring after oak tree buds burst open. However, the caterpillars are available for only a short period because, once fully grown, they pupate in soil. If these caterpillars hatch too early, before oak buds are available, half may perish within five days. But hatching too late also creates problems for caterpillars.

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